Behaviour and Mental Health Problems The Centre of Knowledge on Healthy Child Development is dedicated to finding, evaluating and summarizing only the very best research on subjects pertinent to healthy child development and child and youth mental health. http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48 Wed, 26 Nov 2014 17:03:00 +0000 Joomla! 1.5 - Open Source Content Management en-gb School, Neighbourhood, and Family Factors in Childhood Bullying http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/283-school-neighbourhood-and-family-factors-in-childhood-bullying http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/283-school-neighbourhood-and-family-factors-in-childhood-bullying In Short…

Bullying behaviors in children are influenced by family issues, problems in neighbourhoods, and school size. Prevention strategies should also focus on these risk factors.

The Issue: To develop prevention and treatment programs, it is necessary to understand what the risk factors are for bullying behavior.  Usually, research has focused on the children who participate in bullying. However, it is also important to know what environmental factors promote or protect against bullying.  This knowledge is helpful in creating programs that get at the real roots of the problem of bullying.

The Research: This study was part of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study being conducted in England.  The mothers and teachers of over 2000 child participants were interviewed to identify those who had experienced bullying either as victims or bullies  between the ages of 5 and 7 years, or who were both bullying and being bullied (bully-victims).  The interviewers gathered information from the mothers about their home and neighbourhood environments, and both the mothers and teachers were asked about the children’s mood or behavior problems at age 5.  School characteristics were described by the Department for Children, Schools and Families.

The Results: The researchers found that the greater the number of students in the school,  the more likely the children were to be victims of bullying.  If the families had problems with their neighbours, the children were more likely to be both bullies and victims of bullying.  Family factors such as child abuse and domestic violence were eassociated with children being involved with bullying no matter if the child had behavior or mood problems.  Children were more likely to be a bully-victim if their mother was depressed.  Witnessing domestic violence and low maternal warmth increased the risk for engaging in bullying.  Children who experienced abuse were at higher risk for being bullied, engaging in bullying or being both a bully and a victim of bullying.   This study demonstrated that there are environmental factors that influence childhood bullying and these should aksi be targeted for prevention and intervention.

+++

The preceding is a summary of: Bowes L, Arseneault L, Maughan B, Taylor A, Caspi A, Moffitt T. (2009). School, Neighbourhood, and Family Factors are Associated with Children’s Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study.  Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 48(5): 545- 553.

]]>
jonathan@mixxmedia.com (Administrator) Bullying and Teasing Fri, 11 Dec 2009 05:00:00 +0000
“Whole school” approach works best to stop bullying http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/237-whole-school-approach-works-best-to-stop-bullying http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/237-whole-school-approach-works-best-to-stop-bullying In Short…

The most effective way to reduce bullying in schools is to involve the entire school – teachers, administrators, the children, and peer groups – in teaching children and adolescents how to change attitudes and behaviours.  Curriculum-based programs were least likely to prevent or reduce bullying.

The Issue: Children who are bullied usually have poorer feelings of self worth.  They feel rejected and isolated, and tend to have more depression when they grow up. While a very rare occurrence, there have been tragic incidents of children and teenagers committing suicide because they could no longer tolerate being bullied. 
Experts have reported that there really are three groups involved in bullying: the person who bullies others, the bully’s victim, and bystanders who often encourage the bullying, or fail to intervene or get adult help to stop it.  Children and teens need to know how to deal effectively with bullying, and these skills can be taught in school where bullying often takes place.

The Research: The authors conducted a systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent bullying.  Studies were included in the review if they were school based and had a control group; however, they did not need to be randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

The review authors identified five different types of school-based interventions designed to reduce bullying behavior:

  • Curriculum-based interventions use videos, lectures, and written material to teach and engage students in discussions.  Their goal is to encourage healthier attitudes towards others, change students’ beliefs about what is acceptable behaviour and what is not, and help students learn to make decisions based on their own values.
  • Whole school interventions involve teachers and administrators, individual students, and student groups working together to develop an anti-bullying school environment.
  • Social skills training helps bullying or bullied children learn to change their attitudes and behavior.
  • Mentoring is intended to increase self-esteem, academic performance, goal setting, and ability to develop relationships.
  • Social worker support addresses the problems that can lead to bullying and aggression.

The Results: 26 studies of school-based interventions were included in this systematic review: 10 were curriculum based, 10 were “whole school” interventions, 4 were social skills groups, 1 looked at mentoring of bullied children, and 1 examined the effectiveness of increased availability of social worker support in the school.  The authors looked at the effects of each intervention on bullying, victimization, aggression, and how schools responded to violence.  Some of the studies also looked at the impact of the intervention on academic achievement, how safe children felt, levels of self-esteem, and knowledge and attitudes about bullying.

Findings were as follows:

  • Only 4 of the 10 curriculum-based interventions showed any benefit.  In 3 of them, some children showed increased aggression and some children reported more victimization after the intervention.
  • 7 out of 10 “whole school” programs produced less bullying.
  • 3 of the 4 social skills programs showed no definite reduction in bullying.
  • The 1 study of mentoring found a benefit to bullied children.
  • Having greater access to school social workers decreased bullying and other delinquent behaviour.

+++

The preceding is a summary of: Vreeman RC, Carroll AE.  A systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent bullying. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 2007, 161: 78-88.

]]>
jonathan@mixxmedia.com (Administrator) Bullying and Teasing Mon, 26 Jan 2009 16:34:06 +0000
Bullying and Teasing http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/bullying-and-teasing http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/bullying-and-teasing Most people have had the experience of being teased about something – wearing glasses or the style of their clothes.  However common the occurrence, teasing is really just a subtle form of bullying.  Teasing can undermine a child’s self-confidence, and cause feelings of sadness or embarrassment that should not be dismissed by parents or teachers.

Both teasing and bullying are forms of aggression that are often used to exclude or ostracize another person.   And it’s become a cause of increasing concern.

In a study of 15,686 students in grades 6 through 10 in public and private schools throughout the U.S., 1 in 3 elementary and secondary school students reported moderate or frequent involvement in bullying.  Some (13%) were bullies themselves, some (10.6%) had been bullied, and some (6.3%) had been both bullied and had bullied others.

Males were more likely than females to be both perpetrators and targets of bullying.  The frequency of bullying was higher among 6th- through 8th-grade students than among 9th- and 10th-grade students. [1]

Many people assume that children who are bullied are different in some way – quiet or awkward, for instance – which makes them stand out and causes other kids to target them.  The truth is that many children are victimized for no apparent reason.

What causes teasing to escalate into bullying?  Quite often, it’s the reaction of the victim. Children who stand up for themselves tend not to be bullied.  Unfortunately, far too many children suffer in silence, which only intensifies the abuse and the consequences of the abuse.

Indeed, bullying can produce severe and long-lasting effects in its victims, such as depression or anxiety, that interfere with normal activities and can persist into adulthood. A child or adolescent’s sense of self can be fragile and repeated verbal attacks like the gossiping that girls seem to favour (termed indirect or relational aggression) is as injurious as the physical assaults that some bullies resort to.[2]  Increasingly, too, bullying has become an online activity, with rumours or threats being broadcast on the Internet.[3]

While not all children who are aggressive become bullies, bullies are aggressive people.

The aggression that fuels bullying does not originate in elementary school, nor does the way it presents itself change with a child’s developmental stage.  A study that followed children aged 4 to 7 and tested them over time until they were 8 to 11 years of age, found the children who were persistently aggressive tended to develop a style: they remained either indirectly or physically aggressive as they got older.[4]

Children/adolescents who are part of bullying episodes have different roles:

  • the victim – often, this child may be quiet, withdrawn, and have few or no playmates
  • the bully – often has good leadership skills and usually has friends/allies who are either bullies themselves or bully/victims
  • the bully/victim – this child is both a bully and a victim of bullying, usually has poorer social skills, is less cooperative with others, and has fewer friends compared to children who aren’t involved with bullying [5,6]

Studies of school-yard behaviour have shown that the dynamics of bullying episodes are affected not only by the behaviour of the bully and his/her victim, but by the behaviour of bystanders. Bystanders have a special role to play: they contribute to the bullying by egging on the bully or by failing to act to protect the victim by intervening personally or finding someone else who can.  Bystanders who don’t intervene provide tacit approval to the bully.

There is some evidence that schools, too, can play a role in bullying by promoting a culture in which the administration turns a blind eye to bullying, fails to support the victims, or permits the bullying by teachers of students or their own peers. These schools are reported to have higher levels of student behaviour problems as assessed by the number of students who are suspended from school.[5]

The severity of the problem should not be downplayed but at the same time overreaction is not helpful.  Part of what underlies the behaviour of all of the children involved in bullying are feelings of sadness (possibly a symptom of depression), of being left out, and not belonging at school.[6]  There need to be thoughtful and compassionate programs developed that act on what causes or contributes to bullying and victimization that don’t merely punish the bully and confirm the victim role of their targets.

+++

  1. Stueve A, Dash K, O’Donnell L, Tehranifar P, Wilson-Simmons R, Slaby RG, Link BG. Rethinking the bystander role in school violence prevention. Health Promotion Practice. 2006; 7(1):117-124.
  2. Brough R, Sills J. Multimedia bullying using a website. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2006; 91:202.
  3. Vaillancourt T, Brendgen M, Boivin M, Tremblay RE. A longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis of indirect and physical aggression: Evidence of two factors over time?
  4. Perren S, Alsaker FD. Social behavior and peer relationships of victims, bully-victims, and bullies in kindergarten. 2006; 47(1): 45-57.
  5. Twemlow SW, Fonagy P. The prevalence of teachers who bully students in schools with differing levels of behavioral problems. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2005; 162(12): 2387-2389.
  6. Glew GM, Fan M-Y, Katon W, Rivard FP, Kernic MA. Bullying, psychosocial adjustment, and academic performance in elementary school. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 2005; 159:1026-1031.
]]>
jonathan@mixxmedia.com (Administrator) Bullying and Teasing Mon, 26 Jan 2009 16:09:39 +0000
Prevalence and Predictors of Internet Bullying http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/235-prevalence-and-predictors-of-internet-bullying http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/235-prevalence-and-predictors-of-internet-bullying In Short…

Internet bullying, like verbal and physical bullying, tends to occur when students believe the climate in their school is poor and that their peers are not supportive of each other, and when there is widespread belief that bullying is morally acceptable.  Programs to stop bullying should focus on changing attitudes and behaviours that contribute to these problems.

The Issue: It used to be that everyone knew the schoolyard bullies. Their victims could at least try to avoid confrontations. With increasing use of electronic devices and online social networking  a more stealthy form of harassment has surfaced: bullying over the Internet. The main problem now is that the victim can’t identify the bully. Not only do their classmates and peers know the gossip being spread, there is a potential that anyone using one of the popular Internet social networks can be privy to it. The victims’ sense of shame, fear, and helplessness are magnified because they may not know how, or even whether,to fight back. For school officials, parents, and other concerned about bullying, there has been little good information about Internet bullying. Being able to understand what leads to bullying of any kind is the first step to countering it.

The Research: This study was part of an on-going bullying prevention program in the state of Colorado. One of its main goals was to determine the frequency of different kinds of bullying, including Internet bullying. Children in Grades 5, 8, and 11 at 78 schools filled out questionnaires asking if they had ever been bullied or if they had ever bullied anyone else. There were also questions about the types of bullying, the students’  beliefs about how common bullying is in their school, how normal or acceptable they feel it is, how they describe their school’s climate (whether it is positive or negative), and whether or not they feel that peers are trustworthy, caring, and helpful.

The Results: The study found that most bullying was of the verbal type (name-calling, insults, or threats), followed by physical threats or attacks (e.g., pushing, shoving, picking fights with students perceived to be weaker), with Internet bullying being the least common.  Both physical and Internet bullying tended to peak during the middle school years and then decline in high school. Boys were more likely to report physical bullying, but both boys and girls reported the same rates of verbal and Internet bullying. Like verbal and physical bullying, Internet bullying was related to whether or not students believed that it was acceptable, believed their school had a bad climate, and if they believed there was little or no feeling of peer support.

+++

The preceding is a summary of: Williams KR, Guerra NG. Prevalence and Predictors of Internet Bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2007; 41: S14-S21.

]]>
jonathan@mixxmedia.com (Administrator) Bullying and Teasing Mon, 26 Jan 2009 15:41:34 +0000
Childhood bullies and victims and their risk of criminality in late adolescence: the Finnish “From a Boy to a Man” study. http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/234-childhood-bullies-and-victims-and-their-risk-of-criminality-in-late-adolescence-the-finnish-from-a-boy-to-a-man-study http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/234-childhood-bullies-and-victims-and-their-risk-of-criminality-in-late-adolescence-the-finnish-from-a-boy-to-a-man-study The Bottom LineChildren who bully others frequently are more likely to engage in criminal activity when they grow up..
These children should be tested for psychiatric illnesses to prevent future problems.

The Issue: Bullies make life miserable for their victims. Some children seemed to get picked on frequently, others seldom or never. Some children bully others all the time, some just occasionally. There is also a group of children who are both victims and bullies.  Many children who bully have emotional or behavioural problems and often have conduct disorder or ADHD.

The Research: This long-term follow-up study looked at whether or not having been a bully, a victim, or a bully-victim in childhood predicted engaging in criminal acts during late adolescence, like drunk driving, property crimes, violence against others, or traffic offences, or having a psychiatric disorder.

2551 8-year-old boys, their parents and teachers were asked about bullying behavior. Teachers and parents were asked if each child  bullied or was victimized by a bully, or both and to what degree (e.g., never, somewhat, or certainly). Children were asked if they bullied others “almost every day,” “sometimes,” or “usually never.” They were also asked if they were bullied “almost every day”, “sometimes”, or “usually never”. Parents and teachers were also asked to fill out scales that help identify behaviours that reflect ADHD, depression, anxiety, or conduct disorder. Later, their police records for ages between 16 and 20 years were examined.

Results: Children who bully often and who also have symptoms of psychiatric disorders are at greater risk for engaging in criminal behavior as they get older.

+++

The preceding is a summary of: Sourander A, Jensen P, Ronning JA, Elonheimo H, Niemela S, Helenius H, et al. Childhood bullies and victims and their risk of criminality in late adolescence the Finnish From a Boy to a Man study. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine. 2007; 161: 546-552.

]]>
jonathan@mixxmedia.com (Administrator) Bullying and Teasing Mon, 26 Jan 2009 15:39:52 +0000
A systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent bullying http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/233-a-systematic-review-of-school-based-interventions-to-prevent-bullying http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/233-a-systematic-review-of-school-based-interventions-to-prevent-bullying In Short…

The most effective way of reducing bullying is schools is to involve the entire school -- teachers, administrators, the children, and peer groups -- to teach children and adolescents how to change attitudes and behaviours in order to stop bullying. Curriculum based programs were the least likely interventions to prevent or reduce bullying.

The Issue: Children who are bullied usually have poorer feelings of self worth, feel rejected and isolated, and tend to have more depression when they grow up. While a very rare occurrence, there have been tragic incidents of children and teenagers committing suicide because they could no longer tolerate being bullied.  Experts have reported that there really are three groups involved in bullying: the person who bullies others, his/her victim, and bystanders who often encourage the bullying, fail to intervene, or get adult help to stop it.  Children and teens need to know how to deal effectively with bullying and these skills can be taught in school where bullying frequently takes place.

The Research: Studies of anti-bullying interventions were included in the review if they were school based and had a control group; however, they did not need to be randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The review authors identified five different types of school-based interventions to reduce bullying behavior:

  1. Curriculum-based interventions use videos, lectures, and written material to teach and engage students in discussions. Their goal is to teach healthier attitudes towards others, change students’ beliefs about what acceptable behavior consists of, and help students learn to make decisions based on their own values to reduce bullying.
  2. Whole school interventions involve teachers and administrators, individual students, and student groups in the goal of developing an anti-bullying school environment.
  3. Social skills training programs help bullying or bullied children learn to change their attitudes and behavior.
  4. Mentoring as an intervention is intended to increase self-esteem, academic performance, goal setting, and ability to develop relationships.
  5. Social work intervention addresses the problems that can lead to bullying and aggression.

The Results: 26 studies of school-based interventions were included in this systematic review: 10 were curriculum based, 10 were “whole school” interventions, 4 were social skills groups, 1 looked at mentoring of bullied children, and 1 reported on increased availability of social worker support in the school. The outcomes were bullying, victimization, aggression, and how schools responded to violence. Some other outcomes often related to bullying such as academic achievement, how safe children felt, levels of self-esteem, and knowledge and attitudes about bullying were among those used in some of the studies.

Only 4 of 10 curriculum-based interventions showed any benefit and in three of the interventions some children showed increased aggression and some children reported more victimization after the intervention.

7 of 10 whole school programs produced less bullying.
3 of 4 social skills programs showed no definite reduction in bullying.
The 1 study of mentoring found a benefit to bullied children.

Having greater access to school social workers decreased bullying and other delinquent behavior.

+++

The preceding is a summary of: Vreeman RC, Carroll AE. A systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent bullying. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 2007; 161: 78-88.

]]>
jonathan@mixxmedia.com (Administrator) Bullying and Teasing Mon, 26 Jan 2009 15:36:57 +0000
Electronic Bullying Among Middle School Students http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/232-electronic-bullying-among-middle-school-students http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/232-electronic-bullying-among-middle-school-students In Short…

Electronic or “cyber bullying” is a problem for preteens and teenagers. Children as young as 11 or 12 are bullying others or are being victimized using electronic devices. Girls were more likely to be victimized but were also more likely to engage in electronic bullying than were boys. Parents, teachers and others involved with children need to step in to help stop electronic bullying. Schools can limit access to the devices during school, parents can state expectations for their child’s behavior online and monitor their activity. Anti-bullying programs may need to be updated to include electronic bullying.

The Issue: Preteens and teens are increasingly using Internet-based communication devices to keep in touch with their peers.  While text messaging, emailing, use of web sites and chat rooms, and talk over cell phones by these age groups is usually benign, these devices can provide the opportunity to spread gossip, harass, and even to threaten others.

The Research: This was a study of 3,767 children in Grades 6, 7, and 8 at six elementary and middle schools in the United States.  The Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire and the Electronic Bullying Questionnaire, developed for this study, were given to the students. The questionnaires asked middle school aged children about their experiences of bullying others or being victimized, or both.

The Results: Overall, 11% of the study participants said that they had been bullied at least once during the previous two months. This occured most frequently through text messaging, followed by chat rooms, e-mail, and Web sites.  Grade 8 children were the most likely to engage in electronic bullying and the most likely to be victims of that kind of bullying. A quarter of the girls reported being victims of electronic bullying in the previous two-month period, but were also more likely to engage in electronic bullying than boys.

+++

The preceding is a summary of: Kowalski RM, Limber SP. Electronic Bullying Among Middle School Students. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2007; 41: S22-S30.

]]>
jonathan@mixxmedia.com (Administrator) Bullying and Teasing Fri, 23 Jan 2009 21:05:48 +0000
Developmental Trajectories of Bullying and Associated Factors http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/231-developmental-trajectories-of-bullying-and-associated-factors http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/231-developmental-trajectories-of-bullying-and-associated-factors In Short…

Many children who frequently bully others are set on a path that can continue into adulthood. Early interventions that target their aggression, their deficits in understanding other’s behavior, and their ability to solve problems with others could reduce their aggression and social problems as they get older. Many of these children also have difficult relationships with their parents and their peers, and interventions with their families plus help and support could positively affect many of their problems.

The Issue: Children and adolescents who bully appear to have problems understanding how to establish and maintain relationships with other people. They learn to control and hurt others with their aggressive behavior. Many children who are not commonly aggressive will bully others on occasion. There is another group, however, who seem to have a chronic problem with bullying that persists over a long period of time. Understanding how chronic bullying develops would be helpful in preventing or intervening to stop it.

The Research: This was part of a long-term study of children who were 10 to 14 years old at the start of the project. Over a period of 8 years, 871 children (466 girls and 405 boys) took part. They were tested twice in the first year and then once a year for each of the following seven years. The children were asked about the frequency and severity of their bullying behavior, whether they were mean or cruel to others, weren’t trustworthy, tricked others into doing things, and lacked any guilt when doing so. Measures of aggression included descriptions of behavior, like pushing or shoving, throwing things,  hitting or punching someone and how often this happened. “Relational” aggression, described as spreading rumours or lies about someone, keeping someone out of a group, or ignoring them when angry was measured as well.  Family relationships were assessed based on reports of parental monitoring, parental trust, and conflict with parents. The nature of peer relationships was assessed by asking about associations with peers who bully others, conflict with peers, and how susceptible participants were to peer pressure.

The Results: The children’s likelihood of chronic bullying was determined by their scores on yearly testing done between ages 10 and 17.  Four groups of children were identified: approximately 10% who engaged in chronic, high levels of bullying; 35% who reported a  consistent pattern of moderate level bullying, and about 42% who reported they never bullied others.

The children identified as bullying others frequently seem to be establishing a way of interacting with others that could well carry over into adulthood.  They use aggression and power as a means of getting what they want and to control others.  They are far more likely to be in conflict with their parents, to have peers who bully, have higher susceptibility to peer pressure, and to lack any remorse for hurting others.

+++

The preceding is a summary of: Pepler D, Jian D, Craig W, Connolly J. Developmental trajectories of bullying and associated factors. Child Development. 2008; 79(2): 325-338.

]]>
jonathan@mixxmedia.com (Administrator) Bullying and Teasing Fri, 23 Jan 2009 19:41:35 +0000
What is the early adulthood outcome of boys who bully or are bullied in childhood? http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/230-what-is-the-early-adulthood-outcome-of-boys-who-bully-or-are-bullied-in-childhood http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/behaviour-and-mental-health-problems/48-bullying-and-teasing/230-what-is-the-early-adulthood-outcome-of-boys-who-bully-or-are-bullied-in-childhood In Short…

Early intervention to prevent bullying behavior and to treat the initial symptoms of psychiatric symptoms would be very helpful in preventing long-term mental health and behavior problems in boys and young men.

The Issue: Both children who bully and those who are bullied can have multiple social and psychological problems.  Although the immediate consequences of bullying are documented – increased aggression and lack of safety in schools and depression and anxiety in the victims – what happens to the bully and the victim of bullying in adulthood has not been well studied. 

The Research: This study followed a group of children from birth.  The children who were identified by self, teacher, and parent as being either bullies or the victims of bullies at age 8 were followed up when they were between 18 and 23 years of age to see if they had any psychiatric disorders.

The Results: Approximately 28% of the young adults who at age 8 had been identified as being a bully, a victim of bullying or being both had a psychiatric disorder when followed up 10 to 15 years later. A child’s bullying behavior predicted the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Being the victim of bullying predicted anxiety disorders in adulthood. Being both a bully and the victim of bullying predicted having both an anxiety disorders and antisocial personality disorder.

Children who engage in bullying behavior or are the victims of bullying have significant chance of having a psychiatric disorder when they reach young adulthood.  Many also had psychiatric symptoms when they were aged 8. However, it was bullying behavior or being a victim of a bully together with symptoms of a psychiatric disorder that predicted adult disorders, not just having shown symptoms of a psychiatric disorder at age 8.

+++

The preceding is a summary of: Sourander A, Jensen P, Ronning JA, Niemela S, Helenius H, Sillanmaki L, et al. What is the early adulthood outcome of boys who bully or are bullied in childhood? The Finnish “From a Boy to a Man” Study. 2007; 120: 397-404.

]]>
jonathan@mixxmedia.com (Administrator) Bullying and Teasing Fri, 23 Jan 2009 19:35:43 +0000